overweight and obesityoverweight and obesity

Overweight and obesity refer to the abnormal or excessive buildup of fat, posing health risks. Body mass index (BMI) is a simple index of weight/height commonly used to classify overweight and obesity in adults. The World Health Organization defines it as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters (kg/m2). According to the World Health Organization, it is defined as:

A person is overweight when the body mass index is equal to or greater than 25 (the Chinese reference standard is equal to or greater than 24).
Obesity is defined as a body mass index equal to or greater than 30 (the Chinese reference standard is equal to or greater than 28).
Body mass index is the most useful population-level measure of overweight and obesity because it is the same for both sexes and adults of all ages. However, because it does not necessarily mean that different individuals have the same level of obesity, it should be considered a rough guide.

What causes obesity and overweight?    

The fundamental cause of obesity and overweight is the energy imbalance between calories taken in and calories burned. Globally:
       The intake of high-fat, energy-dense foods continues to increase;
       The increasingly sedentary nature of work, changes in transportation patterns, and increasing urbanization are all leading to an increase in physical inactivity.
Changes in diet and physical activity patterns are often the result of environmental and social changes caused by development and a lack of supportive policies in the health, agriculture, transport, urban planning, environment, food processing, supply, marketing, and education sectors.

What are the common health consequences of overweight and obesity?
? Elevated body mass index is a significant risk factor for noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, primarily heart disease, and stroke, which stood as the foremost cause of mortality in 2012.  diabetes; and
       musculoskeletal disorders (especially osteoarthritis— —A highly disabling degenerative disease of the joints);
certain cancers (endometrium, breast, and colon).
As the body mass index increases, so does the risk of noncommunicable diseases.
Obesity in childhood increases the chances of obesity, early death, and disability in adulthood. However, in addition to increased future risks, obese children experience difficulty breathing, an increased risk of fractures, high blood pressure, early signs of cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and psychological effects.


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